Fuel cell history updating

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Greater investment into fuel pathways that demonstrate the ability to deliver renewable hydrogen to market at less than the cost of fueling a conventional, or hybrid, vehicle is a key to enabling the market.Government fuel standards programs that provide incentives to low carbon sources of hydrogen can assist in reaching this goal.Another promising opportunity is to explore synergies where temporary oversupply of solar and wind electricity can create opportunities for more inexpensive hydrogen.

Reductions in fuel cell cost, volume, and mass, and hydrogen storage cost have greatly contributed to enabling the initial fuel cell market entrants in California, Japan, Korea, and Europe.Among vehicle manufacturers, hydrogen suppliers, energy companies, and government agencies, such consortia play a key role in planning the infrastructure rollout, standardization, learning from early station and market developments, and helping to identify and troubleshoot barriers in the transition.Furthermore, coordination across passenger vehicle markets, freight, and bus fuel cell applications appears to be an important opportunity for low urban emissions and higher daily throughput at early hydrogen stations.Fuel cells are classified by the type of electrolyte they use and by the difference in startup time ranging from 1 second for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM fuel cells, or PEMFC) to 10 minutes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).Individual fuel cells produce relatively small electrical potentials, about 0.7 volts, so cells are "stacked", or placed in series, to create sufficient voltage to meet an application's requirements.

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